3D Printing of Ceramic Structures via Material Jetting
Since licensing the patented additive manufacturing process “direct inkjet printing“ in 2020 Rauschert Heinersdorf-Pressig GmbH pushes its development towards industrialization. Direct inkjet printing is a material jetting process that is characterized by a direct deposition of aqueous ceramic suspensions onto a substrate via inkjet printheads. After deposition, each printed layer is dried in a controlled manner, resulting in high packing densities of the sub-micron particles. This leads to sintered parts with theoretical densities of up to 99,9 %. Furthermore, by simply using multiple printheads simultaneously, the drop-wise deposition of material allows for an easy manufacturing of multi-material parts with a high freedom of design analogous to colour transitions in graphic printing.
Prof. Dr. Alexander Michaelis studied physics at the Heinrich-Heine University of Düsseldorf and received his doctorate there in the field of electrochemistry. He then went to the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill for 1 year as a scholarship holder of the DFG (German Research Foundation), where he worked in the field of high-temperature superconductors. In 1996 he accepted a position at Siemens AG in semiconductor process integration and was delegated to the DRAM Development Alliance in East Fishkill, New York for 4 years. After his return from the USA in 2000, he joined Bayer AG in Leverkusen. From there he went to Bayer's subsidiary H.C. Starck GmbH, where he headed the Electroceramics and New Business Development departments and served as Managing Director of the high-temperature fuel cell company InDEC B.V.
Since 2004, Prof. Michaelis has headed the Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS in Dresden with more than 800 employees and an annual budget of 77 million euros. He also holds the professorship for Inorganic Non-Metallic Materials at the Technical University of Dresden. He has published over 400 papers.
Currently, Prof Michaelis is also President of the German Ceramic Society DKG. He is an Academician of the World Academy of Ceramics WAC, Fellow of ECerS and ACerS (European and American Ceramic Society).
Task Force Hydrogen: Hydrogen for and with Ceramics—a Common Initiativeof the Federal Association of the German Ceramics Industry (BVKI) and the German Ceramic Society (DKG)
The ceramics production process has severe energy demands due to the required high temperature processes such as de-binding and sintering. In order to lower the associated CO2 footprints, new technologies have to be evaluated. The use of hydrogen—but also power based or oxyfuel processes offer promising solutions for ecological and economic process schemes.
Moreover, due to the unique material properties ceramic products play an essential role for the development of system solutions for the envisioned future hydrogen economy. Hydrogen cannot be efficiently produced without the use of ceramic materials. Examples such as ceramic based electrolysis (SOEC: solid oxide electrolysis cell) for H2 production or sensor technology for harsh environments will be discussed.
It can be concluded: There will be no hydrogen economy without ceramics industry.
Initiated by DKG and BVKI these aspects will be further substantiated in a white paper to advice the public authorities. Furthermore, a “hydrogen task force” of industrial and academic partner will be implemented to facilitate joint R&D projects.
Andraž Kocjan has graduated in 2005 from Chemical Engineering at the Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia. He obtained his PhD in Nanosciences and nanotechnologies at the Jožef Stefan International Postgraduate School (IPS) in 2010 when working at Jožef Stefan Institute (JSI) as a young researcher. In 2011 he moved to the Stockholm University`s Division of Materials and Environmental Chemistry for 1.5 year working as a guest, postdoctoral researcher, where he successfully executed a JECS Trust Frontiers of Research project. Afterwards, he gained a permanent position at JSI and habilitation at IPS, where he is an Assistant Professor. In 2015, he became head of the research programme Engineering and Bioceramics funded by the Slovenian Research Agency. Today dr. Kocjan is a senior scientific associate at the JSI`s Department for Nanostructured Materials. His main research focus is on developing ceramic materials with novel or improved functions for advanced engineering and biomedical applications though exploring the potentials of advanced processing techniques.
In 2019 he received a Young Scientist award of the European Ceramic Society (ECERS). He was a member of established committee of the Young Ceramists Network and is today's chairperson of the ECERS` Young Ceramists and Training Working Group. He is also a deputy of Ceramics section of the Slovenian Chemical Society. Up to date, Dr. Kocjan has EU and Slovenian patent, GB patent application, technical invention, has published 54 scientific papers (~1200 pure citations, h-index: 16), 2 professional papers and 3 non-technical articles and held 8 invited talks and 7 interviews. He has co-founded a spin-out company based on JSI`s licensed knowledge.
Clean and Green—Opportunities and Challenges for Industrial Kiln Construction in a Post-COVID Era
Despite Covid-related restrictions, Riedhammer—together with the SACMI Group—has a far-reaching organization that is fully capable of meeting customer needs, all thanks to decentralized supply chains, flexible production, virtual maintenance tools and a skilled international workforce.
For the calcination of Li-ion-battery powder, a single contract can contain 20 or more production lines. Such high-volume orders require extensive experience, pre-engineering and testing. Detailed designs need to be in place at the time of project negotiation.
Customers are looking to replace fossil fuels with cleaner energy sources. At the same time, standards are becoming ever-stricter and thermal processes more complex. In response, we already offer multiple sustainable heating concepts.
One example of Riedhammer kiln technology—developed for the needs of tomorrow—is the ELK (Extra Large Kiln), designed to meet demand for ultra-high production capacity in the Li-ion-battery sector. One ELK provides the throughput of 4 to 8 modern RHKs (Roller Hearth Kilns) while matching or even surpassing RHK performance parameters.
Dr. Anke Kaletsch is head of the division Powder Technology at the Institute for Materials Applications in Mechanical Engineering (IWM) at RWTH Aachen University. In addition, she is the deputy head of the Institute of Applied Powder Metallurgy and Ceramics (IAPK), which is an associated institute of RWTH Aachen University. Anke Kaletsch studied Mechanical Engineering in Aachen and received her doctoral degree from RWTH Aachen University in 2016. At IWM and IAPK she coordinates research activities and projects in the field of powder metallurgy and ceramics. The main research areas in her department are additive manufacturing (AM), hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and sinter simulation for different production processes like HIP, FAST/SPS, or sintering of parts, produced by binder jetting. Her own scientific focus is the combination of additive manufacturing technologies with hot isostatic pressing. The combination of AM and HIP enables, on the one hand, the improvement of fatigue performance for AM-materials, and opens on the other hand new opportunities for design-free HIP capsule production for net-shape components and functional composite-components.
Accelerating the LPBF Process by the Combination of AM and HIP
Additive manufacturing (AM) processes are of great interest and are the subject of extensive research. Nevertheless, there are still limitations. For laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) the process duration for large components is long, and in addition, the reliability of manufactured components is often not sufficient due to manufacturing-related defects and an anisotropic microstructure. A popular way to optimize the mechanical properties is hot isostatic post-processing of additively manufactured components. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) is an established method in powder metallurgy, which enables materials of the highest quality to be manufactured. The structure achieved is homogeneous and pore-free. Thus, additively manufactured components can be optimized enormously, in particular concerning their fatigue strength. Additionally, by using a HIP post-treatment, the AM process can be greatly accelerated by increasing the scanning speed or the hatch distance because HIP is able to densify large porosities if the samples are built with a dense shell.
Prof. Annelie-Martina Weinberg is the leader of the Musculo-skeletal Research Unit on Biomaterials at the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, MUG. She is an orthopaedic surgeon with a permanent staff position and who has highlighted her career in the development of bioresorbable materials for the application in orthopaedics, especially paediatric orthopaedics, by successful acquisition of the Laura Bassi Centre BRIC (Austrian funding program). 3-D printing is a further topic in her career. Furthermore she is a member of the CaMed Project (Austrian funding project) which focus on 3-D printing in clinics and medicine.
Bone regeneration with 3D printed biodegradable ceramic scaffolds
Availability and regeneration of bone are crucial topics in surgical field concerning the skeleton. Age and pathologies are major challenges in these fields. Therefore, there is a major effort to maximize healing and reduce complications by guiding scaffolds. 3D printed customized scaffolds are among the most advantageous artificial materials for bone regeneration. They can provide increased time efficiency, decreased complication risks, enhanced healing capabilities, and allow for complex scaffold architecture and patient specific geometry. To evaluate a novel biodegradable 3D printed β-TCP (LithaBone TCP 380 D, Lithoz GmbH, Austria, Vienna) scaffold in regard to biocompatibility and osteoconductivity we chose proximal tibiae and calvariae of rats. Goal is a possible use in guided bone regeneration in oral surgery and orthopaedics.
Bilateral calvaria critical size defects (Ø 5 mm) together with mono cortical proximal tibia defects (Ø 1.5 mm, depth: 6 mm) were applied in 36 (12/group) adult male Sprague Dawley rats. Left side defects were sham control, were experimental. Experimental side was filled with on of the following bone substitutes: 1) a novel biodegradable 3D printed β-TCP (LithaBone TCP 380 D) by Lithoz, 2) a proven 3D printed β-TCP (LithaBone TCP 300) by Lithoz, and 3) Bio-Oss®Block by Geistlich Pharma AG (Wolhusen, Switzerland).For analyzing bone volume in the defect area and scaffold volume in vivo micro-CTs scans at wek 2 and 4 and ex vivo scans were performed. Assessing biocompatibility, newly formed bone area, penetration depth, vessel number, vessel area and bone apposition rate are done with histological undecalcified thin ground sections.
Preliminary qualitative results showed a high bone regeneration and therefore high osteoconductivity after 4 weeks of time compared to the sham and no adverse effect for biocompatibility. We expect quantitative results to be ready for presentation on the congress.
Biodegradable 3D printed β-TCP scaffold could be a candidate for guided bone regeneration in implant placement, orthopaedics, traumatology, and neurosurgery to promote bone regeneration in flat and long bone defects in case of confirmation of the qualitative results.
Additive Manufacturing—activities and success stories from the ceramic industry
The bavarian "Coordination Centre for Additive Manufacturing", at Bayern Innovativ, is a hub that links all experts and newcomers and all activities to 3D printing within Bavaria but also on an Germany-wide and international level, from and to Bavaria.
Practical examples from partners and stakeholders provide insights in the successful work performed by the companies and research institutions.
Received his BS in Ceramic Engineering from Alfred University, College of Ceramics. He has managed both the manufacturing process and process development of PZT ceramic for MSI Transducers Corporation for over 20 years. Barry has applied his experience and knowledge in ceramic processing towards injection molding of piezoceramic materials.
Additive Manufacturing of Novel Piezocomposite Structures
Lithoz-America, LLC has applied a patented method of additive manufacturing (AM), called lithography-based ceramic manufacturing (LCM), to repeatably create PZT-5H (DoD Type VI) structures. The LCM method utilizes a digital micromirror device (DMD) to quickly create piezoelectric ceramic parts with customizable geometry and high feature resolution of 100 µm or less. Compared with conventional manufacturing practices, LCM utilizes a photopolymerization process that imparts little stress on the green part and allow for the creation of highly resolute, periodic structures. MSI Transducers Corp. has pioneered material preparation and post-processing methods unique to the AM material to yield sintered piezoelectric parts with properties comparable to conventionally manufactured piezoelectric ceramic. Early studies indicate AM test geometries compliant with ANSI/IEEE Std 176-1987 possess material density, dielectric constant values and piezoelectric charge coefficient values consistent with those measured from traditionally manufactured material. The ceramic phase of a 60 kHzAn AM 1-3 piezoelectric piezocomposite resonant at 88 kHz was fabricated into a simple transducer has also been fabricated and is compared to a bulk transducer of the same specification. The MITRE Corporation has been engaged with modeling and simulation efforts to predict acoustic performance of the AM material, using finite element analysis (FEA), as well as the design of novel structures previously not accessible through traditional manufacturing methods. The LCM process has shown feasibility in the creation of spatial apertures, periodic 3-3 piezocomposite and auxetic structures that demonstrate AM’s ability to not only streamline manufacturing processes of piezoelectric ceramics but also augment the piezoelectric properties performance in of acoustic transducers.
Making Binder Jetting Really Work for Technical Ceramics
As an alternative shaping method to the traditionally used processes, additive manufacturing (AM) can produce economical ceramic components in small lot sizes and/or with complex geometries. Powder-based additive manufacturing processes like binder jetting are popular in the field of metal AM. One reason is the increased productivity compared to other AM technologies. For ceramic materials, powder-based AM technologies result in porous ceramic parts, provided they are not infiltrated. CerAMing GmbH unites the advantages of powderbased processes with the production of dense ceramics by means of the layerwise slurry deposition. By using a slurry, a high packing density of the powder bed is achieved which leads to high green body densities. Furthermore, a very economical debinding time allows the production of parts with high wall thicknesses. The advantages of the technology will be discussed in detail.”
Data management in Production of Ceramic Membranes
The industrial production of ceramic filters has a history which goes way back into the 40s of the last century. This industrialization was triggered by the need for the enrichment of Uranium 235 used in the first atomic bombs and a technology capable to realize that. Although today, the use of ceramic membranes is solely focused on more peaceful applications like in the chemical industry, the major production processes are still handled in a similar and very often manually manner. As ceramic membranes were mostly used in niche market applications and thus manageable production capacities, the well-defined & monitored manual processes could easily handle the collected data and its management so far. In recent years that changed dramatically due to the larger demands for ceramic membranes in broader mass-market applications like waste water and drinking water treatment. As automation became a crucial part of the former manually driven production processes, data creation, collection, analysis, and its management were paramount to run the new production lines economically sound and safe. Although the production processes are well-known and understood and each individual process on its own is rather more simple than complex, the combination of all of them and their interaction to each other, especially on a significant larger production scale, had a major impact to the process control and the data management. This presentation will give an overview of the unexpected but not unsolvable challenges and how potential solutions may look like.
Tailoring Natural Fertilizer
The situation is coming to a head. Agriculture is blamed for being the sole culprit for too high nitrate concentrations in the ground water. Farmers are asked to reduce the spreading of manure and digestate, accepting the loss of earning. Of course, this leads to protests from the agricultural sector. The origin of this issue is, that manure and digestate contain too less essential phosphate or too much ammonium, respectively, to sufficiently supply the highly bred crops with nutrients. To provide the plants with ideal growing conditions, either phosphate can be added (Morocco and China are the only countries with noteworthy deposits) or the volume of the untreated natural fertilizers is adjusted to the phosphate need (which leads to the nitration of unused ammonium).
A well-working solution to the dilemma is to separate the raw material into different fractions by ultrafiltration. The possibility results from the comparatively large size of phosphate ions. This process should of course be ideally run continuously, at low energy consumption and in high yield (heavily concentrated). Dynamic crossflow filtration is a separation technique that fulfills all these requirements. Disc-shaped membranes are assembled onto a hollow shaft which is rotated by a motor. The transmembrane pressure generated in a pressurized housing. The filtrate passes the membrane from the outside to the inside and is removed through the shaft, while the retentate is constantly removed from the membrane surface and re-dispersed. Continuous cleaning through tangentially flow (“crossflow effect”) is thus not reached by pumps like in conventional setups (moving liquid, static membrane), but by the rotation of the filter stack (moving membrane, static liquid). This ensures significant energy savings during operation. Beyond that, the values transmembrane pressure and cross flow velocity are preserved as individual parameters. This allows both the cleaning effect to be increased many times over (higher flux) and the processing of high concentrations (savings in volume of the tailored material). The filtration using KERAFOL’s alumina membrane disc with 5 nm coating leads to a phosphorous-enriched fraction, while a subsequent reverse osmosis gives a potassium- and nitrogen-rich concentrate as well as pure demineralized water. All in all, this procedure can reduce the nitrogen content in natural fertilizers as well as significantly save volume for storage and transport.
Powder bed 3D printing for the production of reaction-bonded silicon carbide
Binder Jetting, classically also known as three-dimensional printing, is one of the most efficient additive manufacturing technologies to create large and complex shaped ceramic parts. It enables the production of prototypes as well as final products, which may not be realized by established shaping techniques. One main drawback of the technology is the immanent porosity of printed green bodies, due to dry powder deposition methods. This usually prevents the creation of parts with material properties which are technically sufficient.
In contrast to the vast majority of technical ceramics, powder bed porosity is not an obstacle for the production of components made of reaction bonded silicon carbide (RBSiC). Instead a porous network is a prerequisite for the liquid silicon infiltration (LSI) process which follows the creation of green bodies. However, green part porosity as well as microstructural inhomogeneity have to be kept on a very low level to be able to produce technical components by binder jetting.
The presentation will give some insights into material and process development, which was key to enable the production of three dimensional printed RBSiC with excellent properties. Today we can exploit process-related advantages of additive manufacturing providing a new dimension of constructive design potentials and address demanding market segments of lithography, metrology and thermal process technology.
Lithoz CeraFab 8500 at Sandia National Laboratories—a year in review
Join Dale Cillessen of Sandia National Laboratories for a Ceramic Additive presentation highlighting a year in review of using a Lithoz CeraFab 8500. This presentation will cover SNL and Lithoz America teaming together to develop custom slurries, mechanical characterization, sintering, shrinkage, and the impacts of having access to ceramic additive manufacturing.
Efficient Production and Qualification of New Materials for the LPBF Process
A major issue for today's metal additive manufacturing industry is the low number of commercially available and qualified materials. This slows down the development of new applications and inhibits the use AM in new industrial areas. To take on this problem Rosswag introduced a holistic process chain beginning with the powder production up to the final part qualification. This process chain is presented with a focus on powder production and the necessary subsequent material and process investigations to achieve predefined technical readiness levels. For the powder production, a typical production process is introduced and important powder and particle characteristics are discussed as well as how to transfer the as-sprayed powder into an LPBF-ready state. Afterwards, the material qualification route for the LPBF process together with target benchmark values for an initial qualification is shown.
Project Manager—Exentis Group AG Since 02/2020
Development Engineer—Exentis Group AG 05/2019–01/2020
Daniel Mirbach, born on 9. September 1984, started his professional career in 2005 with a commercial apprenticeship at a renowned German telecommunications provider, which was later followed by a degree in Business Administration (B.A.).
In the meantime, Daniel Mirbach changed to a leading company in the field of high-temperature technology up to 1800 °C in 2011. He was responsible for the worldwide sales of metallic-ceramic products, components and systems for the construction and operation of electrically and combustion-heated industrial and laboratory furnaces for sintering, firing, melting as well as heat treatments. In 2017 he took over the management of the marketing department and was responsible for the operational and strategic branding.
After more than 11 years of experience in sales, 8 of them in sales of products requiring technical explanation and more than 6 years of experience in B2B marketing, 2 of them in management positions, Daniel Mirbach changed to oculavis GmbH in September 2019. From now on he will be Head of Marketing. The core solution of oculavis GmbH is the modular Augmented Reality platform oculavis SHARE. With oculavis SHARE, service processes, customer service and maintenance procedures can be redefined and carried out more efficiently thanks to Augmented Reality powered remote expert support and standard work instructions. Digital business models in service become also possible for machinery and equipment manufacturers. (Product video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HXQx7lsThH8&t)
Redefining interactions with machinery and equipment. Unlock AR empowered processes in the ceramics industry.
Industrial service processes often require travelling to bring technical expertise where it is needed. In addition, the Corona Virus makes personal contact amongst experts, technicians and machine operators on the shop floor more difficult. Modern Augmented Reality technology in combination with advanced mobile devices and fully adapted processes of machinery and equipment makes machine-relevant knowledge available anytime and anywhere. Immediate reduction of travel expenses and machine downtimes and increased efficiency of processes are some of the short-term benefits. Also explore the long-term value gained by the ability to establish digital business models for machine manufacturers and service providers.
As a journalist and entrepreneur, with a great passion for the additive manufacturing industry and its potential to change the world for the better, I co-founded 3dpbm, a growing global agency, and resource for 3D printing-related businesses. We publish several editorial and news websites focusing on 3D printing/additive manufacturing.
Leveraging my previous experience as a senior analyst researching AM industry verticals, and an internally developed, unique forecast model, 3dpbm has now expanded into providing advanced market research products and services. We specialize on AM adoption in different market verticals, spanning from vertical AM applications (automotive, aerospace, medical, energy, tr ansportation, industrial tooling and automation) to specific AM industry verticals (materials and material families, hardware and technologies, software and services).
We also offer business development consultancy and communication services to both startups and established companies interested in implementing 3D printing services or adopting 3D printing technologies and applications. We organize webinars, events and participate in conferences worldwide focusing on 3D printing.
When we discuss additive manufacturing of ceramics we need to always differentiate between AM processes for technical ceramics, which leverage certain high resolution technologies such as stereolithography in particular, and AM processes for traditional ceramics, which mainly use binder jetting processes.
Applications of technical and traditional ceramics differ greatly: the first are used to produce advanced, high performance parts that usually weigh just a few grams while the latter are mainly used to produce very large molds and foundry cores that weight several kilograms. There are many other applications for AM of both technical and traditional ceramics, which sometimes blur the lines between technologies and materials (for example in the case of glass), however there are generally two very distinguished ceramics AM markets that need to be described and analyzed and that is what we will do in this report.
In a niche market such as ceramics AM the challenges in accurately estimating and mapping the market that 3dpbm identified in its metal market study are more evident. In particular, large data and market analysis firms are not able to understand the complexities and the diversification among market operators in a market segment that they cannot and do not consider large enough to invest significant resources on.
As a leading media and market research firm entirely focused on additive manufacturing, 3dpbm Research is uniquely positioned to address these issues. By leveraging our proprietary index—the 3D Printing Business Directory—which is the largest global directory of validated and verified AM companies around the world, we were able to identify 80 firms that have an invested in ceramics AM, representing nearly the entirety of ceramics AM market segments, intended as metal AM hardware, metal AM materials and metal AM services companies.
These firms have been surveyed to produce the most accurate and detailed database to date of the core metal AM market and to produce subsequent analyses forecasts based on a consolidated forecast model which has been implemented in previous reports.
Ceramics and Metal AM by FFF Process and Use-cases
Due to the price of molds and the constraints of casting, technical ceramic parts are costly and complicated to produce by regular processes, in particular for small series or on demand parts. Companies and labs have to make compromises between the choice of the material and the price, sometimes giving up ceramic for a less suitable but more affordable material.
Zetamix filaments enable companies to solve these issues and to produce parts in the most suitable material for the application. Zetamix range offers 3 ceramic filaments—alumina, zirconia, and black zirconia—and two metal filaments—H13 steel and 316L stainless steel -. They are all compatible with almost every FFF printers, and make it possible to cut down investment cost of ceramic and metal 3D printing implementation. Inspired by ceramic powder injection process, the Zetamix manufacturing process consists of three stages: printing, debinding and sintering. With a density of over 99 %, the finished product benefits the same properties as its counterparts made with traditional methods.This technology is used in a wide range of fields: aerospace, foundry, luxury industry, automotive but also labs and research centers. Possibilities of applications are endless: Zetamix range is relevant to produce on demand parts, complex parts, prototypes but also tools. From the production of aeronautic probes to sample holder, Zetamix filaments solve many production issues.
Francesco Moscato received the PhD in Industrial Bioengineering from the University of Calabria (Italy) in 2008. He was Visiting Scholar at Columbia University (New York USA) in 2014. Since 2015 he is Associate Professor at the Medical University of Vienna.
The research of Francesco Moscato focuses on two main areas: Medical Additive Manufacturing: investigation of how 3d-printing can improve surgical and interventional procedures, medical device prototyping, tissue engineering and medical education. Cardiovascular Bioengineering: research and development of methods and devices improve diagnostics and provide support to a range of cardiovascular pathologies.
He is author of 59 original articles and more than 30 invited talks (twice at a Gordon Research Conference). He was Secretary General (2013-17) and President (2018-19) of the International Society for Mechanical Circulatory Support. Francesco Moscato has been Principal Investigator/Site Coordinator in 7 international and national research grants (for a cumulative funding of about 4 Mio EUR).
Multimaterial Ceramic Additive Manufacturing for Medical Applications
This contribution will comprise a short survey of ceramic additive manufacturing applications in medicine followed by a presentation of current research and development activities performed within the research project “INKplant” (Ink-based hybrid multimaterial fabrication of next generation implants). In this project multimaterial ceramics will be used for manufacturing subperiosteal implants. The medical background as well as the challenges of implant design and 3d-printing will be presented together with some remarks about what will be needed to move towards clinical trials and approval.
Energy Efficiency in Practice
Companies are facing major challenges in the course of the energy transition. In the future, in addition to the pure increase in energy efficiency, especially the reduction of CO2 emissions will become even more important and both key figures and company targets will be aligned with this. In order to successfully achieve the climate policy goals for reducing emissions in the entire sector, companies therefore need an energy or decarbonization strategy that is fit for the future and with which they can master the upcoming challenges. Following the proven structure of energy efficiency networks, which focus on increasing energy efficiency, decarbonization networks such as dekarbN, also connect companies to each other to take advantage of the time and cost-saving benefits of working together to develop their decarbonization strategy. A parallel workshop series presents targeted methods and measures that are important for developing a decarbonization strategy and facilitates the transfer of research into practice.
Franziska Schmidt graduated as Diplom Ingenieur in Materials Science in 2007 and completed her Dr.-Ing. Degree in biomaterials science in 2013, both from the Technische Universität Berlin. During her time as PostDoc at the chair for advanced ceramic materials (TU Berlin) and subsequently at the Division Ceramic Processing and Biomaterials at the Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und Prüfung (BAM, Berlin) she focused on material development for ceramics and composites for additive manufacturing and hard tissue regeneration. In 2020 she joined the department for prosthodontics at the Charité Universitaetsmedizin Berlin as head of the laboratory for Materials science and Biomaterials. Here she has been focusing on development and in-vitro characterization of dental implants, implant surfaces and restoration materials, with a strong focus on ceramic and composite materials and application of AM in dentistry.
Ceramic additive manufacturing in prosthetic dentistry
Lithium disilicate (LiSi2) is a unique dental ceramic due to its great optical characteristics, especially translucency in combination with good mechanical properties, such as strength and fracture toughness. The translucency of LiSi2 is on par with other glass ceramics such as feldspar, whereas it is exceeding them in mechanical strength. There it is only rivaled by oxide ceramics, such as Zirconia and Alumina, which in turn do not satisfy aesthetic requirements. Therefor LiSi2 is favored for restorations especially in the anterior region.
Conventional processing of LiSi2 is either by hot-pressing precrystallized blanks in the so-called lows wax technique or by milling of blocks or blanks. The former method is quite intricate, time and material consuming. Milling as a computer aided manufacturing method (CAM) is embedded in the digital workflow, where patient data is acquired by intraoral scanning and the model and restauration are designed by designated computer aided design (CAD) software. The milling process however is also material consuming, as it is a subtractive method, and furthermore it is limited in the freedom of design. Especially thin restorations, such as non-prep veneers with thicknesses below 1 mm cannot be easily produced by milling. Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies are promising approaches to overcome these limitations of the CAD-CAM production of LiSi2 restorations. Especially lithography based ceramic manufacturing, as developed by Lithoz, is an AM technology with high resolution and precision. We are showing a possible clinical application of LCM produced LiSi2 restorations in the anterior region, which to the best of our knowledge has not been applied until now.
Lithography-Based Metal Manufacturing (LMM)
Lithography-based Metal Manufacturing is an additive manufacturing technology for the production of functional metal components with superior surface aesthetics compared to other AM technologies. LMM is based on the concept of photopolymerization, where metal powder is homogeneously dispersed in a light-sensitive resin and selectively polymerized layer-by-layer by exposure with light. The printed green parts undergo a debinding step to burn off the photopolymer-based binder system. With a subsequent sintering step, mechanical properties, and microstructure equivalent to Metal Injection Molding (MIM) can be achieved. Sintered parts made of 316L stainless steel can achieve 98,5% of the relative density and a tensile strength > 500MPa.
The LMM approach enables production of complex part sizes < 200 g with low surface roughness, high accuracy of the details, mechanical properties, and feature resolution. LMM is developed as a complementary technology for the MIM mass production for prototyping and small-scale production. Using LMM, MIM producers can support their customers more efficiently in the prototyping phase and provide functional parts in hours instead of months.
Gerhard Seifert obtained a PhD in physics at the University of Bayreuth, Germany, in 1994 and habilitated in physics in 2003 at the Martin-Luther-University of Halle-Wittenberg, Germany. In 2012, he joined the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, where he is head of the simulation team at Fraunhofer Center for High Temperature Materials and Design HTL, Bayreuth, Germany since 2015. His current interests comprise many aspects of digitalization of thermal processing such as material, process and furnace simulations, with an emphasis on ceramics production.
High Temperature Materials and Design
The worldwide demand for minimizing greenhouse gas emissions causes a continually increasing need for energy-efficient and flexible operation of large industrial kilns. In spite of the apparent challenges of getting reliable sensor data on the furnace performance under harsh conditions like temperatures above 1000°C and aggressive turbulent combustion gases, digital representation and control of high temperature processes and facilities has a large potential for efficient furnace operation. In particular, flexibility against fluctuating supply of regenerative energy sources requires reliable predictions of the behavior of the fired (ceramic) material in dependence of the processing parameters. A digital furnace twin is a combination of such models comprising combustion, heat transfer and material flow in the furnace as well as the process-related material changes under thermal treatment. Such a twin can either be designed for automated real-time control of furnace operation or for a completely digital, model-based construction of new kiln systems. In this talk, the current state of research in this field will be reported.
In 1996, Formatec was started up as a CIM development company, involved in product-specific process developments for companies such as Philips, Samsung, Vertu, etc. Subsequently, besides development, the company took over the production of components. The still strong development DNA is applied by Formatec to meet customer-specific challenges in ceramics, like ZrO2, Al2 O3, but also for special in-house developments like ESD-qualified ZRO2. Formatec offers a wide range of services; ceramic injection moulding, green machining, grinding, polishing and additive manufacturing with its own systems developed inhouse. Harrie Sneijers has been working in the injection moulding industry for 40 years and has extensive experience as a manufacturer of moulds for injection moulding, process developer and technical consultant for ceramic injection moulded components as well as 3D printing.
Using Hydrogen in Ceramic Industry Kilns—H2 Hybrid Kilns Gaining Ground?
Hydrogen is of huge importance for the success of the energy transition. After all, hydrogen promises that everything can stay the way it is. Fossil fuels are replaced by hydrogen that is generated with renewable power. This vision is also very tempting for the fuel-intensive ceramics industry with its kilns, in order for it to become CO2 emission-free. The current potential applications for hydrogen as fuel in kiln engineering as well as the current technical limitations are presented. Besides the corresponding burner technology, the paper also addresses the novel heating concepts resulting from this. Moreover, the paper aims to provide thought-provoking impulses with regard to the question: Will today’s kilns be H2 hybrid kilns in the future?
Dipl.-Ing. Heinz-Jürgen Blüm has been managing partner of MUT Advanced Heating GmbH in Jena since 1994.
Debinding and Sintering under Advanced Atmospheres
Debinding and Sintering is one of the key steps in powder-based manufacturing. Especially in powder metallurgy, when processing reactive metals, clean and controlled atmospheres are key to get as little impurities as possible and to meet highest material properties. To achieve this it is necessary to understand the chemical and physical processes happening during debinding and the thermodynamics of sintering. This will be discussed in general as well as for stainless steel and titanium as these two materials are of big interest and used a lot in additive manufacturing. Furthermore the ISO furnace concept will be explained which combines debinding and sintering in one furnace to reduce the pick-up of impurities and shorten the process time. The quality that can be achieved with this system will be illustrated by some examples.
After completing a dual study program in radio frequency technology in combination with a few years of experience at a satellite earth station, he started his career at Dorst Technologies in 1989.
After working as a service engineer and software developer, he headed the control engineering development department for more than 10 years. Since 2017 he performs as CIO and CDO for IT and IoT at Dorst Technologies.
As a hidden champion in the development of production equipment for metal powder, technical ceramics and traditional ceramic products, Dorst Technologies expands its portfolio to include functions for the digitalization of powder presses, spray dryers and pressure casting machines. The focus of the development is to increase the Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) of Dorst production machines. Using methods from current international research achievements in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Data Analytics, functions are being developed to improve the quality of the manufactured products and to avoid unplanned machine downtime.
The Next Challenge in Digital Production with Powder Metal Presses
Since several years Dorst Technologies offers IoT functions that extract valuable data from the production process for the user of hydraulic and electric powder presses, refine them and make them available in the customer's own MES system, ready to use. Various satisfied customers are already successfully using the system in production.
The objectives are:
In addition to the presentation of the IoT function packages and their topology in the production environment, the presentation will address the revolutionary opportunities opened up by the systematic application of artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms and machine learning in the context of part quality and machine availability.
In order to meet the diverse demands of digital services, Dorst has developed a modular IoT function library. An individual data model will be created based on the customer's requirements. The Dorst IoT system easily connects to higher-level enterprise systems through optimally adapted interfaces. The refined data are made available to the customer's MES system via this interface.
In addition to data refining, Dorst Analytics,—a SaS (Software as a Service) solution, offers advanced data analytics functions for Dorst customers in case of complex problems and questions in the production environment.
In addition to its competence in data analytics, Dorst Technologies is mainly a valuable partner for successful digital production thanks to its technological and machine-specific know-how.
Debinding and Sintering Optimization via Apps
Debinding and sintering are critical steps in ceramic processing with respect to time, cost and quality.
For a sophisticated optimization, more quantities than weight loss and shrinkage over temperature have to be evaluated. These encompass thermal diffusivity, gas permeability, reaction products and strength, viscous parameters as well as heat transfer from the oven. Hereby, all of these properties do depend on the degree of debinding / sintering and temperature.
Finite element models have been developed, which allow an accurate prediction of material response to a heating process based on measured data. Once a type of green samples has been characterized different components can be simulated. For that, HTL has developed apps, which calculate optimized heating cycles for flexible geometries and oven settings for a given, well-characterized material. The apps are run directly by the user, providing flexibility, fastening the development process and solving issues of confidentiality.
Additive Manufacturing of Metals
The potential of innovative furnace technology for the development of hardmetal products for specific applications
The wide spectrum of hardmetal applications is reflected by an equally large spectrum of grades differentiated according to chemical composition and microstructure. The required properties depend strongly on the application. The material characteristics must be tailored to fit these requirements. Intense research is ongoing to increase the understanding of influence parameters on achievable properties and failure mechanisms in practice. In addition, the establishment of AM has opened up new possibilities concerning the versatility of hardmetal design options. To facilitate the production of new materials on an industrial scale, progress concerning furnace technology plays an important role. An overview of a selection of furnace technology currently in use along the production chain is considered. The application field of the CREMER CARBIDE2500 furnace type is carburization of tungsten or tantalum on an industrial scale. This innovative technology has increased the possible carburizing temperature range to 1400°C–2500°C. The temperature and dwell time directly influence the grain size of the powder produced. A wide range of hardmetal hardness, fracture toughness, and wear resistance can be achieved by varying the grain size and binder content. An increase in grain size range available opens up new possibilities for material design.
Dr. Jens Tartsch is an international well known expert for ceramic implantology in Switzerland. He graduated in 1992 at the „Free University of Berlin (Charite) /Germany“. Today Dr. Tartsch is working in his private dental clinic in Zürich/Switzerland. His main emphasis is in ceramic implant dentistry, the biomaterial and immunological aspects in dentistry and material incompatibilities. Thus, he is an international educator, speaker and author for the topic ceramic implantology and immunology in dentistry. Dr. Tartsch is founder and President of the European Society for Ceramic Implantology—ESCI, chairman of the German Society for Environmental Dental Medicine—DEGUZ and Member Board of Directors of the Swiss Society for Anti Aging Medicine and Prevention—SSAAMP.
Ceramic Dental Implants—3D-printed applications
Dental implants made of zirconium dioxide have become a serious addition to the treatment spectrum to implants made of titanium. In addition to increased health awareness on the part of patients, the clinical advantages of the material zirconium dioxide have also led to this development. However, the reliable use of these implant systems was only made possible by the consistent further development of materials and the optimization of manufacturing methods. For dental implants, not only aesthetics, comfort and biocompatible materials are of great importance - above all, they must also grow well into the bone and withstand the high daily loads in the long term.
In this context, in addition to implant geometry and material selection, it is the manufacturing processes that play an important role in this stability and the long-term clinical success of the implants.
Recently, new manufacturing methods such as additive manufacturing (AM, 3D-printing ) for the production of dental implants from zirconium dioxide have increasingly become the focus of interest and research. The advantage of AM is that three-dimensional objects can be designed on the computer in an almost unlimited variety of shapes and complexity, and can thus be implemented cost-effectively with reduced material input.
However, additive manufacturing is currently still in competition with conventional manufacturing methods such as CIM or hard machining and must be measured against these.
In this context, two-piece implants, for example, also entail different clinical manufacturing requirements than one-piece implants. Furthermore, although a microrough surface design of a ceramic implant has an important influence on long-term clinical success, inadequate surface finishing can lead to loss of stability and implants. From a clinical point of view, does the advantage of AM "customized design" also apply to implants or does standardized manufacturing offer advantages after all? And last but not least...why should we deal with ceramic implants at all?
With answers to these questions and with further clinical background on AM in connection with ceramic implants, this lecture addresses in particular developers and experts from the field of biomaterials and technology, as well as manufacturers of ceramic implants and research institutions. This is because knowledge of the background and actual clinical requirements for ceramic implants is an important prerequisite for the further development and establishment of AM. Only through intensive cooperation between research, technology and clinical application can successful products be created for the benefit of our patients.
A Cost-efficient Direct Foaming Technique for Ceramic Foams Based on Renewable Raw Materials
Highly porous ceramics, also referred to as ceramic foams, combine the high rigidity, hardness and thermal stability of ceramics with typical properties of highly porous structures like very low density, low thermal conductivity, high specific surface and high permeability. Therefore, they offer high potential in various applications like e. g. high-temperature insulation, metal filtration, catalysis, lightweight structures, refractories and bone replacement.
Direct foaming techniques are a very cost- and resource-efficient way to prepare ceramic foams. At the Fraunhofer-Center HTL, a highly flexible direct foaming technique has been developed which aims for minimal production cost and carbon footprint. For this purpose, renewable raw materials are used for stabilizing mechanically frothed ceramic slurries. Aiming at an application in high temperature insulation > 1400 °C, open porosities up to 85 vol.-% and a thermal conductivity down to 0,5 W/mK could be achieved. Beside thermal insulation, other applications are also discussed.
Dr. Johannes Pötschke is group leader of the research group hardmetals and cermets at the Fraunhofer Institute IKTS in Dresden, Germany. He studied material science in Bayreuth and Dresden, Germany and did his PhD thesis on binderless hardmetals at the Technische Universität Dresden. He is in charge of many national as well as international public and industrial funded research projects in the field of hard materials development and processing, including additive manufacturing.
Hardmetals and Cermet
Hardmetals or cemented carbides are a widely used material for a wide range of applications such as cutting and drilling tools, mining tools and wear resistant parts. The excellent mechanical properties result from the combination of a ceramic hard phase, usually tungsten carbide (WC) and a ductile metallic binder phase, usually cobalt (Co). While this combination of WC and Co is most common since its initial development in the 1920s, there is an increasing need for both alternative hard phases and alternative binder phases. This is on the one hand due to increasing demands in regard to material performance and on the other hand due to the fact that Cobalt is classified as both a critical raw material and also as a toxic CMR material. This talk includes current research trends on novel compositions in regard to alternative hard phases and binder metals as well as on additive manufacturing technologies for complex shaped hardmetal tools.
Ceramic Coatings for High-temperature Applications
A wide range of ceramic coatings for high-temperature applications is being developed at Fraunhofer ISC/Center HTL. These include environmental barrier coatings, fiber coatings, wear and corrosion-resistant coatings for furnace materials and others. The coatings are produced primarily via wet-chemical coating processes and slurry deposition processes. Various material systems can be used for the coatings, e. g. Al2O3, Al2O3-SiO2, SiO2, rare earth silicates, yttrium aluminum garnet, ZrO2, zirconium titanates, TiO2, SiC, BN or SiBNC. The institute's material and coating process development will be presented in relation to the state of the art.
Of particular interest are the Environmental Barrier Coatings, in short EBCs, which are used as protective coatings at high temperatures in corrosive atmospheres. These EBCs are used for the protection of oxide and non-oxide ceramic matrix composites in aerospace and power generation applications. To minimize thermal stresses due to different thermal expansion coefficients, the EBCs are designed as multilayer systems.
Title : Patents in AM and why they matter
Additive Manufacturing is still developing at a high speed. This is also reflected in the increasing number of patent applications filed at the European Patent Office (EPO) and worldwide on the topic. A landscaping study on AM by the EPO published in 2020 provided some clear insights on the geographical origins as well as on the sectors and applicants. Patents but also IP rights in general have proven to be an essential factor for success, not only for large companies but also for SME’s. Especially in a technology-driven business environment, having the right IP strategy can pave the way for high growth.
100 Years of Hard Metals and not an End
In 1923, almost 100 years ago, a material made of hard tungsten carbide and tough cobalt metal was patented, which laid the foundation for modern hard materials. From the beginning, further development was aimed at increasing material quality ("minimizing the defect density") and performance. Today, hard metal is a material on which both users and manufacturers place extremely high demands. Selected examples will be used to show how these can be met in the future. In an overview, aspects of the raw materials, the processing, the hard metal itself, and the life cycle will be addressed.
Highly Leak-tight Ceramic-metal Assembly for a Novel, Three-dimensional Imaging X-ray Process
The presentation is intended to provide an overview of the ongoing bilateral 4-year development work by Adapter Imaging LTD and Alumina Systems GmbH in the context of the production of a new, three-dimensional imaging X-ray process. The main focus of the work presented here is the evolution of the vacuum-tight brazed ceramic-metal component to generate the required X-ray radiation. In this case, the ceramic-metal brazed part is one of the core components for the patented process.
Selected evolutionary steps (from the first idea to the implemented solution) and the corresponding joining technology will be presented and discussed. Advantages and disadvantages concerning the required production steps will be presented, including the design decisions derived from them.
Finally, the advantages of the novel process are presented showing first examples from tests conducted by Adaptix Imaging LTD.
INMATEC Technologies GmbH is the world's leading manufacturer of feedstocks for the ceramic injection moulding process. INMATEC has been developing and producing ceramic feedstocks since 1998.
In addition to a wide range of standard feedstocks based on different ceramic powders, which already meet many requirements, customer-specific solutions are developed, and the feedstocks are manufactured on a production scale.
INMATEC has decisively expanded its product portfolio with regard to binder systems for the ceramic injection moulding process.
INMATEC has decisively expanded its product portfolio.
INMATEC is a development partner, service provider and producer at the same time.
Karin Hajek, who has been with INMATEC Technologies GmbH for 20 years, can draw on a wealth of experience as sales manager to advise customers on the selection of ceramic raw materials and feedstocks.
Whether you are new to Ceramic Injection Moulding (CIM) or have already gained experience, there is always interesting news. Take part in the panel discussion, learn more about the special features of the selected products presented and ask our experts about parts and technology.
Lukas Badum received his Bachelor and Master degrees in mechanical engineering from University of Stuttgart, Germany. Since 2019 he is working towards a PhD degree at the Turbomachinery and Heat Transfer Laboratory of Technion, where he is involved in the field of additive manufactured micro gas turbines.
Design, Additive Manufacturing and Testing of a 500,000 rpm Rotor for Micro Turbine Applications
Owing to the high energy density of hydrocarbon fuels, ultra-micro gas turbines with power outputs below 1 kW have clear potential as battery replacement in drones. However, previous works on gas turbines of this scale revealed severe challenges due to air bearing failures, heat transfer from turbine to compressor, rotordynamic instability and manufacturing limitations. To overcome these obstacles, a novel gas turbine architecture is proposed based on conventional roller bearing technology that operates at up to 500,000 RPM and an additively manufactured monolithic rotor in cantilevered configuration, equipped with internal cooling blades. A preliminary rotor has been designed based on an interdisciplinary approach considering thermodynamic analysis, compressor and turbine design, structural design, heat transfer management, generator design and rotordynamic constraints. In this scope, clear advantages of ceramic additive manufacturing could be highlighted. Subsequently, monolithic rotor prototypes containing shaft, turbine and compressor have been manufactured using lithographic ceramic manufacturing technology and subsequent precision grinding. Additionally, the same geometries were manufactured from Inconel 718 using more conventional selective laser sintering technology. Following high-precision rotor balancing, high-speed tests are on-going reaching up to 500,000 rpm and yielding valuable performance data of compressor and turbine. The goal of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of additive manufactured monolithic rotors for micro turbine applications.
Silicon carbide material: Solutions for laser processes, semiconductor & opto-mechanics OEMS and chemical industries
Boostec® Sic is a technical ceramic obtained by pressureless sintering. This process leads to a silicon carbide that is completely free of non-combined silicon.
Our material is well known for its outstanding properties specifically for harsh environments uses. Boostec® SiC is commercially available since the 90’s for mechanical seals and bears (automotive and chemical industries). Its uses have been enlarged to other industrial sectors with the capacity to produce large and complex full SiC parts and assemblies until 3.5 meter class to offer new solutions for semiconductor and opto-mechanics OEMs.
These 30 years old background allows us to develop new innovative applications based on collaborative programs with end users. From the manufacturing of monolith ceramics to the production of complex solutions, Mersen Boostec has developed over the years a unique expertise.
Presentation will begin with a short description of the company inside Mersen, a large and worldwide industrial group. Process and material properties will be described within a second part. Final focus on four of our main current commercial activities will be overviewed as following:
Potential of HIP Postprocessing as Part of Additive Manufacturing Production Process to Ensure High Quality Parts
Ceramic and Metallic sintered parts, regardless of the actual manufacturing process, generally tend to show residual porosity and defects. In most cases, both phenomena are unwanted as among others, they decrease fatigue strength and polishability. Furthermore, pores may be a spot for bacteria.
Of course, the grade of residual porosity always depends on various parameters of the individual manufacturing process. But it can be assumed, that in conventional sintering processes of mass production residual porosity can be minimized more efficiently compared to innovative and flexible manufacturing processes such as additive manufacturing (AM).
HIP, hot isostatic pressing, as a post-treatment can eliminate residual porosity in all kinds of sintered parts. A high-pressure inert gas atmosphere creates high isostatic forces on the parts while sintering temperatures induce diffusion processes which close and seal all pores and defects reliably. Even though HIP technology is ambitious, the process itself is considered as highly reliable and repeatable if the parts have a gas tight surface where the process gas pressure can work on.
In a simplified comparison, AM parts tend to create more residual pores and defects than conventionally sintered parts. The reasons may be diverse but from our point of view, the main reason is that on principal, optimizing the AM process is incomparably more challenging than optimizing the process of conventional sintering processes. While in conventional sintering of mass production the process could be adapted and optimized over countless cycles, this is not possible in the same way for AM for a few reasons. In AM it is not possible to produce hundreds of parts in a first series with slight variations in e.g. powder composition, geometry and support structures, print/laser parameters, sintering conditions, etc. just to find out which part shows lowest porosity.
The Idea of AM is to make single individual parts in a very short time without any additional costs for special tools, or an any optimizations in several iterative cycles. Changing the geometry of the parts is also no adequate method for optimization because this would reduce the main strength of AM, the possibility to design highly complex shapes.
Here, HIP can be a solution. HIP can close pores and heal defects very efficiently to make AM material mechanically reliable. By doing so, AM can concentrate on its main strength, the rapid manufacturing of highly complex shapes and individually designed parts.
This presentation will concentrate on the question how a HIP for AM may look like, from our perspective. CREMER wants to put not only technical but also commercial aspects into discussion due to the experiences we made with AM during the last years. We are looking forward for a vital discussion about the opportunities of AM + HIP with the audience.
100 Years of Hard Metals and not an End
In 1923, almost 100 years ago, a material made of hard tungsten carbide and tough cobalt metal was patented, which laid the foundation for modern hard materials. From the beginning, further development was aimed at increasing material quality (“minimizing the defect density”) and performance. Today, hard metal is a material on which both users and manufacturers place extremely high demands. Selected examples will be used to show how these can be met in the future. In an overview, aspects of the raw materials, the processing, the hard metal itself, and the life cycle will be addressed.
Mark has spent 14 years with Boston Scientific in R&D, product development for cardiac ablation catheters in San Jose, CA, USA and technology development for metal additive manufacturing in Clonmel, Ireland. Mark Mark holds a M.Sci in Engineering (Biomedical Devices) and a B.Sci in Mechanical Engineering.
Additive Manufacturing and Material Considerations for Medical Devices
The medical devices industry has been a relatively slow adopter of additive technology compared to aerospace and automotive. In our experience, there are significant advantages with respect to component prototyping, rapid iteration, and novel designs when the technology is utilized to its full potential. Additive has a wide range of applications for all of Boston Scientific’s divisions: Endoscopy, Interventional Cardiology, Neuromodulation, Peripheral Interventions, Rhythm Management, and Urology and Pelvic Health. The main challenges and considerations include resolution and tolerances, capacity and throughput, technology cost, and biocompatibility. The smallest commercial machines available are suitable for small tooling and large components; and more customized technology is required for printing smaller components, which are most common in minimally invasive devices. The current standard for our applications is metal powder bed fusion. However, there are some drawbacks and challenges associated with metal powder for certain applications. These applications could benefit from resin-based raw materials, such as ceramics, that have a variety of biocompatible properties. Finding applications that have ‘market pull’ represent the fastest way to develop a technology and achieve commercialization. This requires a confluence of factors including an unmet clinical need, a committed technology partner, and medical device supplier that believes in additive technology.
Marko Maetzig is a qualified engineer in materials technology with a focus on powder metallurgy and ceramics. He has been involved in PIM development at ARBURG for over 20 years and has been head of ARBURG's PIM laboratory for more than 10 years.
The Challenge of Drying Technical Ceramics
The drying of technical ceramics is a challenge for the manufacturers of drying systems, as a very wide range of ceramic materials is used here. Due to the countless geometric shapes, a wide variety of manufacturing processes are used, which in turn have a significant influence on the drying of the components. When using appropriate auxiliaries in the ceramics or in the manufacturing process, an after-treatment of the exhaust air from these drying systems is necessary.
The combination of material diversity and geometries, some of which sound out the physical limit of ceramics, requires drying solutions that are designed in such a way that good process control of the drying process is made possible. Economic and efficient drying can only take place if the process parameters specified by the ceramic materials and the design of the components are adhered to.
Martin Bram studied Materials Science at the Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg and received his diploma degree in 1995. Afterwards, he got his PhD degree in Materials Science in 1998 from University of Saarland, Saarbrücken, Germany. Currently, he is working as a group leader in the field of “Powder based processing and sintering” at the Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-1: Materials Synthesis and Processing) of Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Jülich, Germany. In 2012, he finished his habilitation at Ruhr University Bochum, where he is active as a lecturer. In 2020, he got an adjunct professorship at this university. His main research interests are devoted to powder based processing and sintering of materials for energy applications like metal-supported fuel cells, electrolyzers, batteries and high temperature materials. A special focus lies on electric current assisted sintering technologies.
Application of Electric Current Assisted Sintering
Techniques for Advanced Processing of Energy Materials
At Forschungszentrum Jülich, the Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-1: Materials Synthesis and Processing) has long-term expertise in the field of Electric Current Assisted Sintering (ECAS) techniques. IEK-1 operates a broad spectrum of related equipment including Field Assisted Sintering Technology/Spark Plasma Sintering (FAST/SPS), Hybrid FAST/SPS with additional heater, Ultra-fast High Temperature Sintering (UHS), Flash SPS, Flash Sintering (FS) and Sinter Forging (SF). Current research topics—ranging from fundamental to applied research—are discussed on selected examples.
2018 – Today: Head of design and project manager at ECT KEMA GmbH
2018 – 2011: Development engineer and project manager at Wacker Neuson SE Munich
2011 – 2008: Dual mechanical engineering studies (specialising in design) at DHBW Mosbach and Wacker Neuson SE Munich
2008 – 2005: Vocational training as an industrial mechanic at Siemens Power Generation Görlitz
2004: Abitur at Annengymnasium Görlitz
Ceramic Filters for Advanced Process Technologies
Due to their specific advantages, the demand for ceramic filters is increasing worldwide. As a consequence of the rapid spread and development, the quantitative and qualitative requirements for the
demands on the extrusion of these filters as the dominating shaping method are growing in concept and detail.
Which requirements have to be met in extrusion?
Which perspectives and drivers are to be expected?
Are there new developments in the geometry or the coating of the filters?
All this will be explained in a practice-oriented way by?
Data-centric Smart Factory
Since the breakthrough of deep neural networks in image recognition, artificial intelligence has proven to be very successful in a wide range of industrial applications, bringing the concept of automation to a new level.
However, a full deployment of these technologies in a plant poses serious challenges.
In order to let the algorithms support the decision-making process of white and blue collars in a reliable way, one need to standardize the flux of data generated across the entire factory, from raw materials characterization to quality controls, from scheduling orders to warehouse management.
That is the key to unlock the power of AI under the strict constraints imposed in a production environment.
In other words, we really need to acknowledge the central role played by data to make a factory smarter, as tech companies did to create the smart devices that changed our way of living.
Moritz von Witzleben is a qualified mineralogist and has been managing director of INMATEC Technologies GmbH for more than 20 years.
Under his leadership, INMATEC has become the world's leading producer of ceramic feedstocks.
As deputy chairman of the German expert group of ceramic injection moulding CIM, he drives the further development of the CIM technology.
With his teaching activities at the Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences and the University of Koblenz, he inspires students to dedicate themselves to ceramics and the shaping method of CIM. After being President of ECERS (European Ceramic Society) from 2017-2019, as President of the JECS Trust he is devotes himself to promoting research and teaching in the field of ceramics in Europe.
New Approaches of AM of Dense and Porous Ceramics for Advanced Refractory Applications
Additive manufacturing enables the production of specially designed foams, grids, and bulk structures for customized applications. The combination of additively manufactured sacrificial templates with flame-spray technique enables the production of ceramics for high-temperature applications with excellent thermal shock resistance and chemical inertness, such as ceramic filters for molten metal filtration and casting moulds. Water-soluble templates based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and manufactured by selective laser sintering (SLS) were covered by an alumina flame-spray coating, which acts as standalone ceramic object after removing the organic template. The resulting microstructure and phase composition were analysed and the interaction of the products with molten metal evaluated.
The Department of Advanced Ceramics at the IFKB, headed by Prof. Dr. Frank Kern, has been involved in research and teaching of oxide ceramic materials and their manufacturing techniques for demanding applications in mechanical engineering, medical technology and electronics for more than 20 years. The findings of fundamental materials-related research activities are transferred to industrial applications within the framework of mostly publicly funded projects. To this end, the IFKB researches the entire process chain of ceramic injection moulding, from raw powder selection and preparation, feedstock production, CIM moulding, debinding to the sintering process. Due to this holistic view of the production chain from material to application, the department was able to develop valuable competences to solve industrial problems.
Philipp Ninz is a doctoral student and long-term research associate at the IFKB and is primarily involved in the research and development of ceramic materials for laser direct structuring. He is also involved in the transfer to industrial production of these materials using ceramic injection moulding and additive processes.
Laser induced activation and metallisation of doped alumina substrates manufactured by lithography based ceramic manufacturing
Laser induced activation and autocatalytic metallization is a process enabling the selective and fully additive metallization of ceramic materials. Hereby a pulsed laser beam is used to structure and activate the surface. Subsequently the parts are immersed in an electroless metallisation bath in which the deposition of metal takes place selectively on the activated surface areas. The process is used for the application of conducting paths, antennas or other metallic structures on complex shaped three dimensional ceramic components. Thereby a high degree of design freedom is achieved and structural and electronic functionalities can be integrated. This enables miniaturisation and leads to reduced weight and volume of electronic components. Recent material related research on ceramic substrates of our own promises new application fields for three dimensional mechatronic integrated devices (3D-MID) by exploiting the beneficial properties of ceramics compared to state-of-the-art polymers.
The substrate material composition, its microstructure and surface properties are important factors for the effectivity of the metallization process besides the type of laser source and parameters and the composition of metallization bath. The metallization efficiency of alumina can by drastically increased by doping with few percent of oxides such as Cr2O3 or NiO which can be introduced as powders during the ceramic feedstock preparation. For the lithography based ceramic manufacturing (LCM) process these intransparent dopant powders propose a challenge. The LCM process is relying on a certain amount of transparency of the powder loaded suspensions in order to solidify a suspension layer with a certain thickness and to reliably interconnect the layers to form a solid, defect free part.
A different way to incorporate dopants into the ceramic substrate material is by a subsequent dip infiltration after the shaping process. Hereby a pure alumina part is shaped, debindered and pre-sintered. The resulting porous body is infiltrated with a precursor solution of the respective dopant. During drying the precursor is decomposed and the oxide dopant is deposited within the pore volume and then diffuses into the alumina during sintering. The drawback of this method is that the dopant concentration is inhomogeneous over the volume and leads toto a higher concentration on the surface.
The presentation gives a short introduction into the process of laser induced activation and autocatalytic metallization of ceramics. It addresses challenges connected to the additive manufacturing via LCM and shows first results of the successful selective metallization of alumina substrates doped by the above-mentioned methods.
Reaction Bonding of Mullite-based Ceramics
The production of ceramics based on mullite, require high temperatures up to 1750°C, in order that a heat or creep resistant product will reach the relevant product parametersPreviously work in our group was focused on lowering the temperature of sintering mullite based ceramics, by using silicon (Si)—and aluminium metal (AL) powders, as sintering partners, to generate a reaction bonding process that produces fully reacted materials, which will not re-react with further heat treatments, including heat treatments over the initial sintering temperature.
This paper describes how it was possible, by the use of silicon metal and aluminium hydroxide, to produce mullite based ceramics with enhanced properties.
New Refractory Materials and Concepts for the Reduction of CO2 Emissions of High-Temperature Processes
Reducing or minimizing the carbon footprint of industrial processes is one of the essential tasks of the current decade. In order to reach the global goals of reducing the greenhouse gas emissions significantly, the energy efficiency of high-temperature processes has to be improved. Such energy consuming process steps are the essential basis for the production of many raw materials and primary products. At operating temperatures of >1400 °C or even >1600 °C a controlled heat management is crucial. Hence, refractory products have to fulfill several tasks. On the hot face, the refractory material has to withstand the high temperature and corrosive media whereas towards the cold face it shall offer a low thermal conductivity. For many high-temperature processes, a layered structure consisting of different refractory materials is the current standard.
Several new approaches of improved and carbon footprint optimized refractory products are discussed. Several examples of refractory concepts for a direct CO2-saving are given for several industries e.g. steel, cement and ceramic industry.
Exploring new concepts to design damage tolerant ceramics using additive manufacturing
The combination of ceramics with other materials (metals, polymers or other ceramics) has enabled the fabrication of hybrid systems with exceptional structural and functional properties. However, a critical issue affecting the functionality, lifetime and reliability of these systems is the initiation and uncontrolled propagation of cracks in the brittle ceramic parts, yielding in some cases very high rejection rates of component production. In previous work, design concepts that combine different approaches used in current ceramics engineering have proved successful in obtaining highly reliable ceramic materials with enhanced fracture resistance. For instance tuning the location of “protective” layers within a ceramic multilayer architecture can significantly increase its fracture resistance, while retaining high strength. The use of tailored residual stresses in embedded layers can act as an effective barrier to the propagation of cracks from surface flaws, providing the material with a minimum design strength, below which no failure occurs. Moreover, by orienting (texturing) the grain structure, similar to the organized microstructure found in natural systems such as nacre, crack propagation can be controlled within the textured ceramic layers. In this contribution, the potential of employing lithography-based ceramic manufacturing (LCM) process to design multi-phase layered architectures is presented, which can contribute to the fabrication of future 3D ceramic components with enhanced damage tolerance. Two examples are presented:
(i) In a first work, a multi-material approach is employed to combine alumina-zirconia layers sandwiched between pure alumina layers, in order to introduce significant compressive residual stresses in the latter. A characteristic strength higher than 1 GPa was measured on the alumina multi-material system, compared to ~650 MPa in monolithic alumina, taken as a reference. This is the first report of employing additive manufacturing to tailor the strength of alumina ceramics, taking advantage of the layer-by-layer printing process.
(ii) In a second work, 3D-printed highly textured alumina is fabricated combining the LCM technology and Templated Grain Growth (TGG) during sintering. Relative densities of >93 % were reached for textured alumina, compared to 99% on equiaxed reference samples. A high degree and quality of texture was achieved with 3D-printing. A characteristic strength of 640 MPa was measured for textured alumina, comparable to 570MPa obtained in equiaxed alumina.
These studies open new possibilities in the fabrication of complex 3D ceramic-based multi-material geometries with tailored microstructures, which could be a new pathway for designing complex parts with outstanding mechanical strength and reliability.
Mr René Kirchner (50) has been head of the sales department of FCT Systeme GmbH, Frankenblick (Germany) since 2002. An important part of his function is the handling of projects according to customer specifications with a focus on process development and the implementation of the results in hardware and software of the FCT sintering furnaces. Furthermore, he is responsible for the active execution of R&D projects, especially in the field of sintering technology.
He studied materials science at the University of Applied Sciences in Jena (Germany) and obtained his MS degree in 1994. From 1994 to 2002 he worked as a project manager in the resin moulds department at Netzsch in Sonneberg. Since 2002, he has been responsible for worldwide activities as Head of Sales at FCT Systeme GmbH in Frankenblick (Germany).
3D-Screen Printing of Solar Absorbers Made of SiSiC, Sintered in an Efficient High-Performance Furnace
Exentis Group AG, as the inventor of Exentis 3D Mass Customization, an innovative manufacturing technology of industrial 3D screen printing, can produce the finest ceramic structures by layer-wise build-up. By changing the screen with different structures, complex and at the same time fine geometries are possible, such as the 3-way stepped solar absorber with spikes, which in the finest structure has a web width of 450 µm (as green body). But also more delicate structures such as walls with a thickness with a minimum of 100 µm can be realized with this technology. A variety of metals, polymers and ceramics can be processed due to the adaptability of the developed paste recipes for this process. The aforementioned solar absorber which can be made of SSiC or SiSiC is sintered at FCT Systeme GmbH.
FCT Systeme is a producer of innovative high temperature furnaces for sintering predominantly non-oxide materials. Together with our partner, Exentis Group AG we developed efficient sintering methods which are designed especially for filigree, fine-structured parts. Besides the optimized combined process (de-binding and sintering in one furnace) we also integrated a fast-cooling system in order to guarantee an economic production of the parts. In the framework of this project it has succeeded, to provide solar absorber with finest structures via an innovative forming process combined with an efficient sintering process to the market in an economic way.
Ceramic AM for New Space
3D Printing is a technology which remains associated with prototyping and spare parts for the majority of industry. However, early adopters from markets such as, aerospace or biomedical, rapidly understood how to use to their advantage and jumped, from the very beginning, on the opportunity to actively participate in its development. They could see the capabilities to produce parts not possible with traditional processes, with new designs to enhance parts and add new functionalities to obtain better performances. Above all, 3D Printing works with different materials including technical ceramics! For over 15 years, at 3DCeram, experts have been working to perfect the prototype and material qualification stage. Now it arrived at the production stage, the so-called mass customization. Is it reliable now? The answer arises from 2 case-studies coming from the spatial industry. The first one concerns a new-space industrial nanosatellites builder, the second is a company that designs and manufactures spacecraft thrusters for nanosatellites.
Roland J. Ortt (1964) is Associate Professor of technology and innovation management at Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands. Before joining the faculty of Technology Policy and Management Roland Ortt worked as R&D manager for a telecommunication company. He authored articles in journals like the Journal of Product Innovation Management, the Market Research Society and the International Journal of Technology Management. His research focuses on development and diffusion of high-tech systems, and on niche-strategies to commercialize these systems. Roland is research dean of the European NiTiM network of researchers in innovation and technology management and is member of the board of the ICE-conference, the IAMOT Conference and of the editorial board of Transactions on Engineering Management. Roland won several best-paper awards.
Don’t Sit and Wait but Innovate
Ceramics and metal additive engineering represent radical innovations in production technology. There are several reasons why companies producing metal and ceramics parts are cautious or even reluctant to adopt this technology. These reasons will be discussed using success & failure studies in innovation and by referring to Gartner’s hype cycle model. Success & failure studies show that radical innovations are less (often) successful compared to incremental innovations and the hype cycle illustrates how expectation can be quite unrealistic and hence lead to disappointment. In contrast, there are also several reasons why companies should seriously consider adopting radical innovations like ceramics and metal additive engineering. Markets can be disrupted by radical technologies and companies in those markets can go bankrupt overnight. The disagreement between those who are against and those who are in favour of adopting and implementing radical innovative production technologies will be put into perspective by presenting a generic pattern of development and diffusion of radically new technologies. This pattern is based on studying more than hundred radically new technologies and it shows that groups in favour or against innovation are right in different stages of the pattern. A managerial implication of this observation is that it is crucial to assess the position of ceramics and metal additive engineering in the pattern of development and diffusion. Furthermore we will describe how the status of a few important market building blocks can help track further future developments of the radical technologies. A managerial implication of this approach is that companies can assess the market around the innovative technology and then decide when to wait and when to innovate.
Sadaf Sobhani is an Assistant Professor in the Sibley School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Cornell University. Her research activities focus on developing high-efficiency, low-emission, and robust thermal management and energy conversion systems. She explores rigorous pathways to apply topology optimization techniques combined with additive manufacturing and non-intrusive diagnostics to design, fabricate and analyze tailored structures in combustion, electrochemistry, and other complex flow systems. Previously, Dr. Sobhani worked as a research associate at the NASA Ames Research Center and the Energy and Climate division of the United Nations Foundation. She received her doctorate degree in mechanical engineering from Stanford University.
Additive Manufacturing of Ceramic Porous Structures for Application to Combustion Systems
In Porous Media Burners (PMBs), a solid porous matrix embedded within the combustion chamber accumulates heat from the hot gaseous products and preheats incoming reactants. PMBs have been shown to achieve combustion properties superior to those of free-flame systems, including higher burning rates, reduced propensity for flame instabilities, decreased pollutant emissions, and lower lean-flammability rates. Furthermore, the large surface area-to-volume ratio of PMBs can be applied to facilitate effective adsorption and conversion of impurities.
The local porous structure of PMBs directly affects the total heat transfer across a porous material, reactivity, and flow behavior. However, conventional fabrication methods for the ceramic structures applied in PMBs produce locally random pore geometries and sizes within a range of global parameters. Architected porous materials, however, enable tuning of flame stability and pollutant formation, which can have significant impact on combustors prone to lean flame blow-out, e.g., gas turbine engines, or systems that require robust operation for a wide operating range, e.g., household boilers. In this research, we demonstrate the fabrication of architected porous ceramics with predefined and reproducible microstructures to enable advanced PMBs. Using Digital Light Processing ceramic additive manufacturing, five different mullite and alumina burners were designed, printed, and tested to characterize emissions, temperature, and structural properties.
Samad Firdosy is a materials and manufacturing technology development engineer at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. He is currently focused on the development and qualification of additive manufacturing materials and processes for space craft applications.
Plant-based Hydrocolloids and Biopolymers—Bio-based Solutions for Ceramic AM?
Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose (HPMC)
Aqueous systems of this cellulose ether can increase the viscosity and form gels upon heating. A special property is the reversibility of this thermal gelation. HPMC is mainly defined by the degree of substitutions (DS) and the viscosity. Thereby thickening of mixtures can be regulated and different gelling points can be achieved.
A natural hydrocolloid extracted from brown algae. They differ in their capacity to react with calcium ions and other di- or trivalent ions. By this reaction the rheology changes and the state of aggregation changes from liquid to solid. Therefore, water insoluble, temperature stable gels and films can be produced.
Microcrystalline Cellulose Gel (MCG)
MCG is a gel forming agent which is co-processed from MCC and a water-soluble thickener such as e. g. CMC or xanthan. The thickener in combination with the MCC ensures an easy dispersibility and prevents the re-aggregation of the MCC particles in water. To activate the MCG and form a gel, high shear mixing is necessary. After activation in water, MCG forms a 3-D elastic gel-network of insoluble cellulose fibrils.
Pectin is a versatile biopolymer which is found in the cell walls of fruits, especially citrus fruits and apples. Pectins are complex polysaccharides that chemically consists of partial methyl esters of polygalacturonic acid and their salts (sodium, potassium, calcium and ammonia).
Background in chemical engineering and material science from Technical University of Vienna.
He works as process and material engineer of Lithoz and will mainly serve as experienced material and process engineer in the field of two material printing.
The medical, electrical and aerospace fields are just some examples of industries that are using 3D printing to push past previously established applications. Multi-material 3D printing is garnering particularly widespread attention in this way due to the wide range of possibilities it offers to manufacture parts with improved functionalities and properties. New applications are just waiting to be discovered thanks to multi-material 3D printing and this technology is finding new uses in different industries every day.
In this lecture you will learn all about Lithoz's CeraFab Multi 2M30, a powerful multi-material 3D printer which utilizes the full capacity of additive manufacturing to combine ceramics, metals and polymers in one single component. This innovative machine enables complete freedom in design, allowing for the manufacture of parts and structures with combined material properties and thus opening the door to 3D printing in entirely new applications and industries. Powered by industry-leading Lithography-based Ceramic Manufacturing technology, the CeraFab Multi 2M30 creates multi-functional components for applications ranging from electronics and embedded sensors to biomedical implants and devices, as well as in the aerospace and automotive industries.
Consequences of Stretching Ceramic Mechanical Properties to their Limits for Technologically Challenging Applications
The mechanical performance of ceramic materials are typically characterized according to various standards, which mainly focus on final test geometry and surface roughness of the samples. However, it is common knowledge that also the manufacturing route plays a crucial role in the final performance of a ceramic monolith, for given pressing and sintering conditions. This is even more relevant for Zirconia were the different manufacturing steps could significantly influence its crystallographic phase composition. So far, this was not critical for most of the applications as the safety factors for design were very large. Today in applications, such as dental implants, the components are designed at the limit of what the material can deliver in controlled conditions. The intrinsic statistical distribution as well as the process variability of the mechanical resistance of ceramics, such as zirconia, needs to be addressed when designing sensitive components, such as medical implants. This talk aims at raising the questions of ceramic mechanical characterization and its implications on materials selection. Finally, it will address the importance of product characterization for sensitive applications.
Since 2011 with Eisenmann / Onejoon (takeover EN by OJ in Jan. 2020). In the following functions:
L2P program—scaling from batch to continuous production—Upscaling processes for advanced and thin film ceramics
There is a high focus on the development of advanced materials and ceramics for new applications and industries, e.g. oxide and non oxide powders for battery applications, SOFC / SOEC and other multi layer ceramics as well as high performance electronics. Where new materials and products have been successfully approved on a lab scale, the challenge is to define the next steps towards a product validation and the realization of high volume production. Where material performance is a key driving force in the development phase of a new product, for a large-scale production this is not enough. Production cost, sustainability and reproducibility are equally important as investment cost for equipment.
The lecture will give an insight of how this process can be accelerated in close cooperation between furnace supplier and ceramic producers. Onejoon’s L2P program ensures that our customers get the support they needed depending on their readiness level in the key success areas (1) plant, (2) process and (3) people. When joining the program, these three areas are developed alongside four levels, depending on the maturity level of our customers in each of these areas.
Typical steps during the program steps include experiments and measurements in batch furnaces, test firings in pilot scale kilns and in the Onejoon Test Center, using near to production scale carriers or saggars. They sometimes contain the realization of pilot scale kilns and small volume kilns, aimed to allow the validation of the process under “near to” production conditions. The final step is the ramp up scenario for the production. During this last phase, production efficiency is almost as important for the success of a new product.
You will see examples for all three key success areas based on an analytical and innovative route towards an efficient production concept. Using a wide range of experiments, test facilities and the profound engineering excellence of Onejoon, as well as supporting CFD and FEM Simulations.
Dr Simona Iliescu is Physicist by Universitatea de Vest Timisoara (Romania), received her PhD in Materials Science at the Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain) and MBA by Polytechnic University of Catalonia (2011). In 2006 started to work within the Advanced Ceramics private sector in the RD department and as Associate Professor at the Polytechnic University of Catalonia. Since 2016 is the RD Manager for Advanced Ceramics Division of Sedal Group, leading tape casting process developments, among all the RD and innovation projects within the Advanced Ceramics field. More details about Dr Simona Iliescu´s professional expertise can be seen within her linkedin profile: https://www.linkedin.com/in/simonailiescu/.
Water-Based Tape Casting Process: an Innovative Environmental Friendly Process for Mass Production of Thick and Thin Ceramic Substrates for Electronic Applications
Towards the commitment to the environment by introducing a cleaner process within the mass production, Sedal has been involved for the last years in the optimization of the water-based tape casting process to produce high quality ceramic substrates for electronic applications. It is well known that water-based tape casting is a low- cost and especially an environmentally friendly process. But its main difficulty relies on the drying conditions and controlling the thickness of the tapes obtained, among others. That is why, its mass production introduction is being a difficult task for the ceramic substrate´s industry and is the main reason for which the organic solvent-based tape casting process predominates, even its complex installations, high cost and harmful effect for the environment.
Despite this, Sedal has optimized the water-based process for different thicknesses of alumina 96 substrates for mass production: from 0,3 mm to 1mm. Slurry formulation, tape casting process conditions, densification and post sintering processes, all have influence on the final quality of the substrate, but also are conditioning the continuity of the process. Using the optimized process, Sedal can produce high quality ceramic substrates that accomplish state of the art standards required by electronic applications. Physical, mechanical, electrical, thermal and surface properties are showing that this process can be used industrially in continuous production, gaining a cleaner process without losing performance of the substrates. Some results of our ceramic substrates obtained in the mass production by water-based tape casting process are shown in this paper.
Stephan Genilke is research assistant in the Powder Technology Division at the Insititute for Materials Application (IWM) at RWTH Aachen University since 2018. He studied aerospace engineering at the FH Aachen University of Applied Sciences. His research interest is the influence of the carburization temperature of tungsten carbide on the mechanical properties of cemented carbides.
AM of WC–Co Hard Metals Using Laser Powder Bed Fusion
The production of WC-Co carbides requires considerable know-how. The starting powders, the furnace atmosphere have a significant influence on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of hard metals. The potential of additive manufacturing and especially beam-based processes cannot yet be unleashed. Beforehand, questions regarding the starting powders, the process parameters, and the possible post-treatment must be clarified. Researchers from all over the world are working on this issue. The currently published studies will be summarized in this presentation. Results from recent work carried out in collaboration with Fraunhofer ILT and the Machine Tool Laboratory WZL at RWTH Aachen University will be presented.
Scene Additive—Together to a Productive Level of Ceramic Additive Manufacturing
The Scene Additive in the DKG (German Ceramic Society) has been founded as an open platform and sees itself as a service, technical, and lobbying point for the additive manufacturing of ceramics. The contribution takes a look back at the activities of the scene in the past. However, times are changing and the technology hype of Additive Manufacturing is already behind us. Now, we are faced with the slope of enlightenment for reaching the level of productivity in this technological area. The scene would like to tackle these new challenges and offers those who are interested in and using additive manufacturing a platform for exchanging experiences, further technological development and better representation of the interests of its members. After intensive discussion of the board members with industry representatives of companies which are already using Additive Manufacturing for ceramic components production or which are on the jump to do so, the Scene Additive intents to transform into the structure of a committed association offering its members unity for solution of upcoming technical tasks. The contribution shall act as initiator for a subsequent discussion about the contents of future work, about the frame of collaboration, and about the goals to be defined for the very next steps.
Ulrich Degenhardt is Head of Research and Development at FCT Ingenieurkeramik GmbH, a manufacturer of high end components made of non-oxide ceramics. He first studied Material Science and Engineering at the University of Bayreuth / Germany. In 2005, he received the German “Hans-Walter-Hennicke” award for his master thesis. Prior to joining FCT, he made his Ph.D. at the Department of Ceramic Materials Engineering in Bayreuth, with research focus on precursor-derived ceramics. In his actual work at FCT, he advances the material development and tailoring of special silicon nitride grades.
Silicon Nitride Speciality Materials for Product and Process Innovation in Semiconductor and Analysis Technology
Many areas of technology would be unthinkable today without high-performance ceramics on the basis of silicon nitride for the optimization of structures and processes. They are used, for instance, for reducing wear, increasing process temperatures, avoiding corrosion or cross-contamination to lightweight engineering or reducing accelerated masses.
In many new applications, however, the established standard silicon nitride grades available on the market are now reaching their limits. One solution may be speciality grades with a properties profile that has been selectively changed based on modification of the composition and/or microstructure compared to established gas-pressure-sintered silicon nitride (GPSN). On account of the high technological challenges involved, however, such special variations developed in laboratories in recent decades are only slowly finding their way into production.
As a specialist in silicon-nitride-based materials and niche supplier, FCT Ingenieurkeramik recognized the sign of the times early on and has therefore been offering speciality Si3N4 material variants for several years now. The technological benefit can be shown very clearly with the example of semi-conductor technology: For example, for the lining of coating equipment or handling systems for wafers, speciality ceramics are sought that contain the lowest possible quantities of sintering additives and impurities in their composition in order to minimize the effects of cross-contamination. In other cases, a thermal expansion coefficient identical to that of the silicon or SiC wafers is required to structure semi-conductors as finely and precisely as possible and then test them accordingly. For the perfect tempering of wafers, on the other hand, speciality Si3N4 grades with increased thermal conductivity are useful. These are also used increasingly as substrates for high-power circuits—e. g. in wind power and electric mobility applications, as, besides good heat dissipation, higher application temperatures, thermal shock resistance and strength or damage tolerance are becoming increasingly important for these components.
For measurement and analysis systems, tailored Si3N4 ceramics offer crucial advantages: for example, crucible holders in smelters for XRF specimens—made of Hastelloy up to now—are now being replaced with a special Si3N4 grade. Thanks to high-temperature strength and corrosion resistance, the ceramic solution offers not only a longer lifetime, it also reduces cross-contamination in XRF analysis specimens.
Advanced Ceramics for Healthcare—Materials, Properties, Applications
The most important properties of advanced ceramics in the field of medical technology are hardness, electrical insulation, stiffness and, of course, biocompatibility. Ceramics are therefore indispensable in this field; they play a decisive role in many areas, including implants, dental prostheses and medical instruments.
In this lecture, the most common ceramic materials for applications in surgical instruments, their specific properties and typical areas of use in this application will be shown. In addition to solid ceramics, ceramic coatings will be presented, which are also suitable for such applications and in some cases can represent an interesting alternative.
CerAMfacturing of Ceramic-based Multi Material Components
Additive manufacturing (AM) is on everyone's lips, as previously unknown possibilities arise in the field of shaping. However, AM processes also have their limitations in terms of design freedom and still have some catching up to do compared to conventional processes in terms of realizable component properties and manufacturing costs.
By adapting AM to the manufacturing of multi-material components, the component properties can be further increased, so that advanced ceramic components with previously unattainable properties and property combinations can be realized.
The presentation will summarize our current status for two different manufacturing strategies. With simultaneous manufacturing, thermal co-processing of the different materials is necessary, while this can be avoided with sequential manufacturing. However, the geometric freedom in simultaneous manufacturing is much higher than in sequential manufacturing, but the choice of material combinations that can be processed is much smaller.
Prospective Dr.-Ing.—Additive manufacturing for tissue engineering—specialization in stereolithography (SL)
IMTCCC, University of Stuttgart, Germany
October 2019–September 2017
M.Sc. in Manufacturing Technologies, with highest distinction
Technical University of Dortmund, Germany
Specialization: Additive Manufacturing, Polymer Processing, Robotics, and Finite Element Modelling
Thesis: FE modelling of engine brackets in the field of NVH – Daimler AG
July 2017–May 2017
Certified Autodesk® User
The Autodesk® Authorized Training Centre (ATC)
Certificate No. 1FA15844F2 and No. 1ZKX146378 – Revit 2017
June 2015–September 2010
B.E in Mechanical Engineering, with distinction (Top 5 % - Class of 2015)
Notre Dame University – Louaize, Lebanon
Specialization: Manufacturing, Materials Science and Robotics
Characterization of Colloidal Stability in Ceramic-Filled Photo-Curable Resins for Stereolithography
Polymeric dispersants are frequently used to provide steric and electrostatic stabilization of ceramic particles in photo-curable resins intended for digital light processing (DLP). However, the dispersant’s type, functionality and concentration directly influence its effectiveness. This contribution is a characterization study of more than ten anionic, cationic, nonionic and amphoteric dispersants, with the goal of identifying the optimum polymeric dispersant for ceramic-filled photo-curable acrylate formulations. The compatibility and miscibility of the different dispersants were tested in a typical photo-curable acrylate monomer (methyl methacrylate). Two different ceramic powders, viz. Al2O3 and β-Ca3(PO4)2, were functionalized with the selected dispersants using shear mixing and an agitator bead mill. Micrographs revealed that anionic dispersants offer a promising dispersibility in acrylate formulations, while different types of anionic ammonium polyacrylate dispersants showed varying levels of effectiveness. The operational pH of the suspensions was monitored for varying concentrations of the dispersants. This revealed the dissociation mechanism of the different dispersants. The concentration of each adsorbed dispersant on the surface of the ceramic particles was measured using centrifugation followed by UV/VIS spectroscopy. Moreover, flow curves generated on a modular rheometer were used to analyse the influence of the dispersant type and concentration on the flow and viscoelastic behaviour of the resins. The sedimentation stability was assessed using amplitude sweeps followed by frequency sweeps. The highest levels of adsorbed dispersant induced the lowest viscosity, storage and loss moduli. High levels of adsorbed dispersant, coupled with the right electro-chemical interaction, offered superior colloidal stability. This resulted in a more reliable feedstock for stereolithography.
Oxide/Oxide Ceramic Matrix Composites—Replacement Possibility for Metallic Alloys at High Temperatures
When working on high temperature applications, mechanical engineers are used to think in metals and high temperature alloys. Working at temperatures higher than 600°C with metals, it is seen that the material reduces their strength dramatically. In addition it can be seen that due to the high thermal expansion of metals on structures permanent deformations or stress induced cracks occur. Also high temperature corrosion will be seen.
Can be a high temperature fiber reinforced composite material an alternative? With Oxide/Oxide Ceramic Matrix Composites (Ox/Ox-CMC) a material is developed that combines the positive properties of metals like damage tolerance and the high temperature performance of ceramic. Looking at the high temperature strength it is seen that above 800°C Ox/Ox-CMC has better values than metals. Regarding the specific tensile strength at temperatures lower than 600°C Ox/Ox-CMCs have the same values than metals, above 600°C they are much better.
Due to that with Ox/Ox-CMC thin-walled ceramic structures can be produced, this ceramic material can replace perfectly thin-walled sheet metal structure. The much lower density of Ox/Ox-CMC gives the possibility to produce light weight structure.
In this presentation several high temperature applications were shown with a better life time and a much better performance than metal parts. These are applications in the field of aeronautics, careers for heat treatment, chemical engineering and in special for high temperature Solar receivers for central receiver systems.
Transformation from Manufactory to Smart Production
Whether from the consumer side or from industrial customers—the expectations of the products are changing. In the days of manufactories it was still enough for them to be of high quality and individual, at the time of industrialization it was above all quality, price and availability. Many people wanted access to goods that were previously inaccessible to them. In the course of time, individuality was added, which one tried to achieve by means of a variety of variants. This is no longer enough. The essential new requirements from the market are real individuality, more customer benefits in existing products and more services. This requirement also affects production. Smart Production wants to meet these new requirements for production systems based on new customer needs and the corresponding business models using innovative technologies and methods. That’s the theory. But how does this work in practice?
3D Printing of Ceramics: Binder Jetting vs. Material Extrusion
The technological fundamentals of Binder Jetting go back to developments at MIT at the end of the 1980s. In this process, a binder is applied locally to a powder bed by means of a print head, which bonds individual powder particles together. Particles can also be added to the binder liquid. The printed powder layer is lowered by a defined amount and covered with a new layer of powder. The printed binder also ensures that the layers are bonded together. In this way, layer by layer, the three-dimensional body is created, which must be made free of loose powder after the binder has cured.
In Material Extrusion, a viscous material is forced through a nozzle, which is moved along a predefined path. The basic requirement for the material to be processed is that it solidifies after being deposited as a strand. Two basic mechanisms are possible for this purpose:
During the presentation, the possibilities and limitations of binder jetting and material extrusion will be presented comparatively and discussed in the context of industrial applications.